Clinical Diagnostics

Aerobic Vaginitis

Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a newly defined clinical entity that is distinct from candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Because of the poor recognition of AV, this condition can lead to treatment failures and can be associated with severe complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, preterm birth and fetal infections. AV is a bacterial infection with vaginal discharge that is often mistaken for bacterial BV. AV is a disruption in the normal vaginal flora characterized by a decrease in Lactobacilli as the predominant species, and an increase in aerobic flora accompanied by malfunctioning white blood cells and high levels of inflammatory biochemicals. In AV, aerobic bacteria such as those frequently found in the intestines, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus (GBS)), and Enterococcus faecalis are recovered. However, intermediate forms of AV may exist with a mixed flora type.

Available Tests
Aerobic Vaginitis Panel
Documents
Info Sheet  Requisition Form 
Test Information
Organism List: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus
 
Clinical Utility: Retrogen offers early & accurate detection, rapid turnaround times, and only requires a single, non-invasive sample collection. Your referring physician will be provided with a detailed, comprehensive report that leads to actionable decisions and forward treatment options.
 
Method: Retrogen carries out real-time molecular PCR on DNA extracted from vaginal swabs to screen for microorganisms. This quantitative approach uses TaqMan chemistry from Life Technologies to detect pathogen specific gene sequences.
Ordering
Test ID: #8006
Turn-around Time: 24-48 hours
Preferred Specimen: Vaginal swab
Billing
CPT Codes: 87653,87798x2, 87640
Billing Information: View Billing Information
Web Resources
  1. Mayo Clinic Staff (Updated 2012 February 25). Vagina: What's normal, what's not.
    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/vagina/MY01913/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed March 2013.
  2. Gore, H. (Updated 2011 October 27). Vaginitis.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/257141-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com.
  3. Samra-Latif, O. (Updated 2012 January 13). Vulvovaginitis.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/270872-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2013.
  4. Leber, M. and Tirumani, A. (Updated 2012 April 16). Vulvovaginitis in Emergency Medicine.
    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/797497-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed March 2013.
  5. CDC.
    Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. MMWR Recomm Rep 2010(https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5912a1.htm);59(No. RR-12).
References
  1. Amsel R, Totten PA, Spiegel CA, et al. Nonspecific vaginitis: Diagnostic criteria and microbial and epidemiologic associations. Am J Med 74(1):14-22, 1983.
  2. Verstraelen H, Verhelsy R. Bacterial vaginosis: An update on diagnosis and treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7(9):1109-1124, 2009.
  3. Spiegel C, Amsel R, Holmes K. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by direct gram stain of vaginal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. July 1983 vol. 18 no. 1, 170-177.
  4. Workowski, KA; Berman, S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC) (17 December 2010). "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010." MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 59 (RR-12): 1-110.
  5. Warner L, Klausner JD, Rietmeijer CA, et al. Effect of a brief video intervention on incident infection among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. PLoS Med 2008;5:919-27.
  6. Clement, Meredith E.; Okeke, N. Lance; Hicks, Charles B. (2014). "Treatment of Syphilis". JAMA. 312 (18): 1905.